Wednesday, September 10, 2014

US History Notes 9-10-14

¨English Colonization

¨1497 – John Cabot claimed North America for England on behalf of Henry VII

¨England failed to follow up on their claim due to political, economic, and religious upheaval following the death of Henry VII

¨Henry VIII became king; known for having six wives; understood that who controls the oceans will control the world – in response – expanded the Royal Navy; established Protestantism in England by breaking with Rome and establishing the Church of England (Anglican)

¨Henry left his nine year old son, Edward, as king

¨Edward confirmed Protestantism in England and conformed the Anglican Church into a true Protestant church

¨Edward died before his 18th birthday and never actually ruled on his own

¨Mary I became Queen upon the death of Edward and angered her subjects

¨Wanted to convert England back to Catholicism and burned Protestants at the stake – nickname “Bloody” Mary

¨Married Philip of Spain; Spain was England’s number 1 enemy at the time

¨Lost all English lands in France with the exception of the Port of Calais

¨Continued spending policies of her father

¨She only ruled 5 years

¨Upon the death of Mary, her sister Elizabeth was named Queen by Parliament

¨Elizabeth brought about some stability

¨Settled religious question by re-establishing the Anglican Church and allowed Catholics to practice their religion

¨Reformed spending practices and improved the English economy

¨Began English colonization of North America

¨Antagonized Spain by allowing Sea Dogs and supplying troops to fight the Spanish in the Netherlands

¨Period of advancements in the arts (Shakespeare) and sciences (Harriot)

¨Died in 1603 naming her cousin, James VI of Scotland, as king

¨Only one of two English periods of history named for a female – Elizabethan Period

¨Roanoke Voyages

¨Sir Humphrey Gilbert received a charter from Elizabeth to establish a colony in North America

¨Gilbert failed to establish the colony and died at sea

¨In 1583, Gilbert’s charter was bestowed to his half brother, Walter Raleigh, who was an Elizabeth favorite at court

¨In 1584, Raleigh sent out two sea captains, Amadas and Barlowe, to locate a place of settlement on the Voyage of Discovery

¨Sir Walter Raleigh

¨They returned having found an island known as Roanoke to the Natives

¨They also returned with two Natives, Manteo and Wanchese, who would prove invaluable to Raleigh

¨1585 – a military colony (all men) was sent under the command of Ralph Lane as governor

¨Thomas Harriot was a preacher, linguist, and scientist, who was given the task of discovered if there was anything of value in the area that could be sold in England and Europe

¨The work of Harriot was gravely important to Raleigh, who needed something to interest investors and as a way for Raleigh to recoup the money already used in the Voyage of Discovery and the present colony

¨John White was sent as a painter and illustrated to artistically portray the new land, animals, vegetation and inhabitants; White may have been on the Voyage of Discovery

¨The 1585 Colony was to establish a settlement, trade with the natives, map the area, and hold the English claim to North America

¨Problems of the 1585 Colony

  A) leaders fought among themselves and Lane became a tyrant to the Natives as well as his own men

  B) ran short on supplies , so began to trade for food with the Natives and then began to steal from the Natives

  C) relations went from bad to worse when Lane led his men on a raid and killed Wingina,  a local chief

¨During the winter it became too dangerous to leave Roanoke Island due to the angry Natives

¨By June, 1586, things had gone from bad to worse with no re-supply ships arriving

¨Sir Francis Drake, an English Sea Dog, called upon the colony and offered to take it back to England

¨Lane at first refused but a hurricane blew in and he was ready to leave; thus the colony failed

¨Drake left 15 men with supplies for two years to hold the English claim on Roanoke Island

¨Raleigh was disheartened when Lane and the colony returned

¨Good from the Lane Colony

A)The New Found Land of Virginia was written and published by Harriot that outlined the items of profit discovered

B)The drawings of White illustrated items of profit as well as the inhabitants

C)Proved that the English could survive in the New World

D)Kept the idea of English colonization alive

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