Honors World History
Assessment 1, p. 154
1) Key Terms
2) What values formed the basis of Roman society and government?
A) Justice or fairness: creating a form of government that kept any one person from gaining too much power, a system of checks on the power of government, inclusion of plebeians in the republic, increasing social rights for women, education for all classes and genders, just and generous treatment of conquered peoples
3) Describe the cultural setting in which Rome developed:
A) Early in its development, Rome was influenced by Etruscan civilization, especially in language, construction and engineering, and religion
4) Describe an example of Romans achieving political or social equality
A) Political equality: making plebeians participants in patrician senate, allowing some conquered people to become citizens; social equality: given patrician women greater freedom, giving all classes and genders access to education.
5) What were two reasons for Rome’s success in expanding its power across Italy?
A) Skillful diplomacy and a well-trained army
Focus Questions 1 – 9
1) In what ways was Rome’s location an advantage?
It was centrally located on a peninsula in the Mediterranean, which gave it an advantage of a mild climate and access to the sea for trading
2) What other geographic advantages did Italy possess?
Access to the Mediterranean Sea, broad, fertile plains well suited to agriculture, providing ample crops for population growth.
3) What was the role of the senate in the republic and how long did senators serve?
Made laws for the Republic; served for life
4) What checks and balances existed in this form of government?
Term limits on consuls and dictators; consuls responsible to Senate
5) How was the right of plebeians to elect tribunes a check on the power of the patrician senate?
Tribunes had the power to veto laws they felt were harmful.
6) What rights and freedoms did Roman women gain over time?
Right to own property, go to the public, dine out, attend public entertainment with husbands, learn to read and write.
7) Was religion a divisive or a unifying force in Roman society?
Unifying, community celebrations and festivals provided a shared culture and a sense of community.
8) What values made Roman citizens good soldiers?
Loyalty, courage, respect for authority
9) How did these values influence Rome’s efforts to expand?
One reason for its military success was its loyal, well-trained army
Vocabulary 1 – 9
1) Etruscans - people who inhabited early Italy
2) Republic - system of government in which officials are chosen by the people
3) Patrician - in ancient Rome, member of the landholding upper class
4) Consul - in ancient Rome, official from the patrician class who supervise the government and commanded the armies (served for 1 year)
5) Dictator - ruler who has complete control over a government; in ancient Rome, a leader appointed to rule for six months in times of emergency; Example: Cincinnatus
6) Plebeian - in ancient Rome, member of the lower class, including farmers, merchants, artisans, and traders
7) Tribune - in ancient Rome, official who was elected by the plebeians to protect their interests
8) Veto - block a government action
9) Legion - basic unit of the ancient Roman army, made up of about 5,000 soldiers