Section 1 Assessment, p. 10
G) Mary Leakey
H) Louis Leakey
I) Olduvai Gorge
K) Donald Johanson
2) What have scholars learned about the ancestors of humans, and how have they done so?
Anthropologists have identified four groups of hominids. The earliest, a australopithecines, may have lived as early as 7 million years ago in Africa. Later, Homo erectus and Homo sapiens spread out of Africa. Today, humans are the only living hominids. Anthropologists have learned this through bone and artifact evidence.
3) What types of obstacles do historians have to overcome to give a straightforward account of events? How do you think they might do this?
Historians should be careful to look for their own biased viewpoints and weed them out of their work.
4) In what ways do archaeologists work with new technologies and other scholars in their work?
Computers to store and sort data and to develop site maps; aerial photographs to see the layout fo the land; radioactivity to measure the age of objects; work with other scholars to determine ancestors’ diets and the climates they lived in
5) Describe the story that anthropologists think the bones and tools they have discovered reveal about prehistory:
Different groups of hominids emerged at different times in prehistory.
Section 2, p. 15
1) Key Terms:
A) Old Stone Age – the era of prehistory that lasted from 2 million BCE to about 9000 BCE
B) Paleolithic Period – the era of prehistory that lasted from at least 2 million BCE to about 9000 BCE; also called the Old Stone Age
C) New Stone Age – the final era of prehistory, which began about 9000 BCE; also called Neolithic Period
D)Neolithic Period – the final era of prehistory, which began about 9000 BCE; also called the New Stone Age
E) Nomad – a person who moves from place to place in search of food
F) Animism – the belief that spirits and forces live within animals, objects, or dreams
G) Neolithic Revolution – the period of time during which the introduction of agriculture led people to transition from nomadic to settled life
H) Domesticate - to tame animals and adapt crops so they are best suited to use by humans
I) Catalhuyuk – one of the world’s first villages, establish in modern day Turkey around 7,000 BCE
J) Jericho – the world’s first village, established in the modern-day West Bank between 10,000 and 9,000 BCE
2) How was the introduction of agriculture a turning point in prehistory?
It allowed people to settle permanently for the first time, which eventually led to new ways of life, new innovations, and the emergence of cities and civilizations.
3) How do you think development t of spoken language influenced people’s development of skills and religious beliefs?
Because people could communicate with one another, knowledge of skills and religious beliefs could spread more quickly.
4) How are our lives today affected by the Neolithic Revolution that occurred 11,000 years ago?
The complex world full of many cities and civilizations in which we live today might not have developed if not for the Neolithic Revolution.
5) How was settled village life different from nomadic life? Consider population size, social status, and technology in your answer.
With the development of villages, larger numbers of people lived together. Social status changed as men came to dominate many aspects of life. New technologies, such as weaving and pottery developed as needs changed.
Honors World History
Section 3 Assessment p. 23
A) Surplus – an amount that is more than needed, excess
B) Traditional economy – economies that rely on habit, custom, or ritual and tend not to change over time
C) Civilization – a complex, highly organized social order
D) Steppe – sparse, dry, treeless grassland
E) Polytheistic – believing in many gods
F) Artisan – a skilled craftsperson
G) Pictograph – a simple drawing that looks like the object it represents
H) Scribe – in ancient civilizations, a person specially trained to read, write, and keep records
I) Cultural diffusion – the spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another
J) City-state – a political unit that includes a city and its surrounding lands and villages
K) Empire – a group or states or territories controlled by one ruler
2) How did the world’s first civilizations arise and develop?
The world’s first civilizations arose as people began to produce food surpluses, which allowed villages and then cities to develop. Civilizations developed further as organized governments coordinated large scale projects that benefited the people. In addition, job specialization and writing allowed for the expansion of learning and innovation.
3) How were the conditions under which early civilizations developed in Asia and Africa different from those of the Americas?
In Asia and Africa, civilizations developed along rivers. In the Americas, they developed both in highlands and in swamps.
4) In early civilizations, how did religion influence government and social classes? Religion influenced government in that priests often held great power in government. Religion influenced social classes in that priests were usually at the top of an increasingly hierarchical society.
5) (a) Give three examples of cultural change in early civilizations. (b) Give two examples of cultural diffusion today.