Section 1 Assessment, p. 117
1) Key Terms
2) How did the Minoans and Mycenaeans shape early Greek civilizations?
Early Aegean peoples had absorbed ideas from and adapted other cultures; they were sea traders; they were ruled by kings; they worshipped many gods. These traits formed a basis for early Greek civilization.
3) How did trade contribute to the development of the Minoan and Mycenaean cultures?
Sea trade meant that they traveled widely and acquired ideas and technology that they could adapt to their own societies.
4) What values of the ancient Greeks are found in the poems of Homer?
They illustrate ancient Greek values such as honor, courage, and eloquence.
5) Do you think the epics of Homer are a reliable source of information about the history of the ancient Greeks? Why or why not?
The epics are probably not reliable in that they were passed on orally before they were written down, and many have changed. However, it is likely that the stories hold some truth and can provide details on ancient Aegean civilizations.
Focus Questions (1-10)
1) Where and when did each civilization flourish?
A) Minoan – Island of Crete, from 1600 BCE to 1500 BCE
B) Mycenaean – Crete and the mainland from 1400 BCE to 1200 BCE
2) Why might these two civilizations be important to study of Ancient Greece?
They were the forerunners of ancient Greece, lived in the same area, and influenced later Greek society.
3) What were the topics of the Iliad and the Odyssey and who wrote them?
The Iliad tells the story of the Trojan War; the Odysseus’ tells of Odysseus’ long voyage home after the war; both may have been the work of many people, thought they are attributed to Homer, a blind poet.
4) What might people today learn about the ancient Greeks form these epic poems?
We can get hints about daily life, ancient warfare, religious beliefs, and the values of the ancient Greeks.
5) What effect did the mountains and water have on Greek city-states?
Greeks were cut off from each other, developed their own systems of government, and fought frequently. Access to water helped Greeks become skilled sailors and traders.
6) Who governed Sparta and what responsibilities did citizens have?
The Spartan government consisted of two kings and a council of elders who advised the kings as well as an assembly of citizens- male, non-slave, native-born Spartans – who approved major decisions. Male citizens trained from childhood for war; female citizens trained to produce healthy sons and sometimes to run the family estates.
7) What do you think daily life in military Sparta was like?
Daily life was highly disciplined and difficult, with little or no time for personal freedom, interests, leisure, or intellectual pursuits.
8) What reforms did Solon make to the aristocracy of Athens?
He outlawed debt slavery, freed those enslaved for debt, opened high offices to more citizens, granted citizenship to some foreigners, gave the assembly more say, and encouraged exports.
9) Why is the democracy of ancient Athens considered a “limited” one?
Though citizens had broad rights, few Athenians were actually citizens. Women and salves were excluded from citizenship and thus any say in government, since only males could be citizens. Such a version of democracy was hardly representative of the population it ruled.
10) Whom did the Greeks worship and how did they practice their religion?
Greeks worshipped many gods, of whom they believed Zeus to be most powerful. Greeks built temples; held festivals with processions, sacrifices, drama, and athletics; and consulted with oracles
1) Knossos – an ancient Minoan city on the island of Crete
2) Shrine – altar, chapel, or other sacred place
3) Fresco – colorful painting completed on wet plaster
4) Trojan War – in Greek epic poems and myths, a ten-year war between Mycenae and the city of Troy in Asia Minor
5) Strait – narrow water passage
6) Homer – blind bard; given credit for the Iliad and Odyssey
7) Polis – city-state in ancient Greece
8) Acropolis – highest and most fortified point within a Greek city-state
9) Citizen – a native or resident of a town or city
10) Monarchy – government in which a king or queen exercises central power
Section 2 Assessment, p. 123
1) Key Terms
2) How did government and culture develop as Greek city-states grew?
Governments in Greek city-states developed from monarchies to aristocracies to oligarchies, and in some cases democracies. Despite the differences between city-states, Greek language and religion developed along shared line.
3) How did geography influence the development of Greece?
The coastline provided ancient Greece with an excellent opportunity for sea trade. The rugged mountains and islands encouraged independence.
4) Why do you think the three different forms of government evolved over time?
Changes in the distribution of wealth caused difference groups to demand power, leading to three difference types of government.
5) (a) In what ways was Athenian democracy limited? (b) Despite such limits, Athens is still admired as an early model of democracy. Why do you think this is the case?
(a) Only men were citizens, omitting women and slaves. (b) Students might suggest that self-rule, which leads to increased rights for more people, is always admirable.
Focus Questions (11-20)
11) What might be some of the advantages and disadvantages of a society that feels superior to others?
Advantages: Feeling superior might provide a unifying sense that the society can meet any challenge, and might lessen fear.
Disadvantages: Such feelings might blind a society to the value of advances made by other societies.
12) What were the things that unified the Greeks?
Common Language, Common Religion, Common Enemies
13) What led to the conflict between Persia and the Greeks?
Athens sent ships to help Greek city-states in Asia Minor rebel against Persian rule – which infuriated Darius I.
14) Why might some Greek city-states have wanted to withdraw from the Delian League?
Though the League was intended to continue the defense against Persia, Athens dominated the League, even using money others contributed to rebuild its own city. Domination and taking of money provided strong incentives for other city-states to try to withdraw.
15) What responsibilities did citizens of Athens have?
They served in the assembly, on juries, defended the city in war, were paid stipends to serve in government, and could ostracize other citizens.
16) Which do you think had more impact on the cultural prosperity of Athens: democracy or material wealth?
Wealth stimulated cultural achievements; others may suggest that democratic discussion stimulated cultural greatness.
17) Why were Greeks in conflict after winning the Persian Wars?
Many Greeks resented the wealth and power of Athens and its dominance in the Delian League.
18) What was the outcome of the war between Athens and Sparta?
Athens lost dominance and democracy suffered; fighting continued among the Greeks for another century.
19) What did Pericles mean when he said that Athens “is an education to Greece”?
He meant that Athens stands as a shining example for other city-states of democratic excellence
20) How did Pericles view public life?
He believed that participation in public debate and decision-making was essential for citizens.
11) Aristocracy – government headed by a privileged minority or upper class
12) Oligarchy – government in which ruling power belongs to a few people
13) Phalanx – in ancient Greece, a massive tactical formation of heavily armed foot soldiers
14) Sparta – city-state in ancient Greece
15) Athens – a city-state in ancient Greece
16) Democracy – government in which the people hold ruling power
17) Tyrant – in ancient Greece, ruler who gained power by force
18) Legislature – lawmaking body