Honors World History
Section 3 Assessment, p. 165
1) Key Terms
2) How did advances in arts, learning, and the law show the Romans’ high regard for cultural and political achievements?
A) Rome supported writers, artists, and scientists, who produced many of its cultural and political achievements. The Romans found practical applications for advances in science and mathematics, and developed comprehensive legal codes.
3) How did Greek culture influence the development of Roman civilizations?
A) The Romans borrowed much of their philosophy from Greek thinkers and based their art and architecture partly on Greek models.
4) How did Romans use science and mathematics to improve life in the empire?
A) Roman engineers built roads, bridges, harbors, and aqueducts
5) Give two examples of how Roman principles of law affect life in the United States today.
A) Roman principles of law that are part of the American legal system include the presumption of innocence, provision for the accused to face the accuser and offer a defense against the charge, the establishment of guilt only through evidence, allowing judges to interpret laws, and expecting judges to make fair decisions.
Honors World History
Assessment 4, p. 171
1) Key Words
2) How did Christianity emerge and then spread to become the official religion of the Roman Empire?
A) It emerged from a sect within Judaism based on the teachings of Jesus. Followers helped to make it a major religion. It was declared the official religion of the Roman Empire by the Emperor Theodosius.
3) Why were many Jews unhappy under Roman rule even though the Romans were tolerant of their religion?
A) Many Jews were concerned that Hellenistic influenced were weakening their religion. They wanted strict obedience to Jewish laws and traditions. The Zealots wanted an independent Jewish state.
4) What were three basic teachings of Jesus?
A) Jesus believed that anyone who believed in his teachings would obtain eternal life. He emphasized God’s love and taught the need for justice, morality, service to others, and forgiveness.
5) What practices and organizational structures helped establish the early Christian Church?
A) Practice: baptism, Eucharist
B) Structures: a hierarchy of church officials that included priests, bishop, and patriarchs
Focus Questions (22-36)
22) What is the goal of writing satire?
To make fun of or call attention to problems or improper conduct
23) How did the Romans show their admiration for Greek literature, philosophy, and the arts?
They copied Greek styles in prose and poetry; adapted Greek and Hellenistic philosophy, especially Stoicism; and to some extent, based art and architecture on Greek models. Like Greek sculpture, some Roman sculpture was realistic.
24) What were the main differences between Roman and Greek sculpture and literature?
Some Roman sculpture focused on revealing an individual’s character and some was idealistic rather than realistic. Roman architecture stressed grandeur rather than elegance, improved on structural devices such as columns and arches, and developed the rounded dome.
25) What were some practical applications of Roman engineering skills?
Roads, bridges, harbors, aqueducts
26) What original research did Greek citizens of the empire do?
Ptolemy proposed an Earth-centered theory of the universe; Galen used experiments to prove a conclusion
27) What was Rome’s greatest legacy and how is it reflected in the U.S. justice system?
Commitment to rule of law and justice; such concepts as innocent until proven guilty, need for evidence to prove guilt, judicial interpretation of laws.
28) What were citizens of different faiths expected to do in exchange for toleration of their religious beliefs and practices?
Show loyalty to Rome by honoring Roman gods and acknowledging the divine spirit of the emperor
29) What was the outcome of the Zealot revolt?
Roman forces crushed the rebels, captured Jerusalem, and destroyed the Jewish temple. In the next century Roman armies leveled Jerusalem and Jews were dispersed.
30) What new beliefs attracted many followers to Jesus?
The belief that Jesus was the messiah and would bring spiritual salvation and eternal life to those who believed in him
31) How did Paul spread Christianity?
He traveled around the Mediterranean and set up churches in Asia Minor and Greece; he wrote long letters to Christian communities explaining difficult doctrines, judging disputes, and expanding Christian teachings.
32) What was the effect of Paul’s missionary work?
Christianity began to grow form a sect within Judaism to an emerging world religion.
33) Why did the Romans persecute Christians?
They suspected Christians of disloyalty to Rome.
34) How did the unity of the empire make missionary efforts easier?
The unity of the empire and common languages made communication of Christian beliefs easier; Roman roads facilitated missionary travel
35) Why did Church leaders seek a hierarchy or structure for the Church?
To ensure uniformity in beliefs, practices, and rituals so that local priests or bishops, did not act independently, and to provide an orderly way to make decisions and settle conflicts over doctrines or practices
36) What issue led to disagreement between the Church in the Latin-speaking west and the Greek-speaking east?
Rivalry among patriarchs over whether greater power should be given to the bishop of Rome – who came to be called the pope – or should be divided among five patriarchs who shared spiritual authority equally
19) Satirize - make fun of
20) Mosaic - picture made from chips of colored stone or glass
21) Engineering - application of science and mathematics to develop useful structures and machines
22) Aqueduct - in ancient Rome, underground or bridge like stone structure that carried water from the hills into the cities
23) Ptolemy - proposed the theory that the Earth was the center of the universe, a mistaken idea that was accepted in the Western world for nearly 1500 years
24) Messiah - savior sent by God
25) Apostle - leader or teacher of a new faith or movement
26) Paul - Jew from Asia Minor who established Christian churches in Asia Minor and put Christianity on the road to becoming a world religion
27) Martyr - person who suffers or dies for his or her beliefs
28) Constantine – made Christianity legal; established new capital of Constantinople
29) Clergy - the body of people who conduct Christian services
30) Bishop - high-ranking Church official with authority over a local area, or diocese
31) Patriarch - in the Roman and Byzantine empires, highest church official in a major city
32) Pope - – head of the Roman Catholic Church; in ancient Rome, bishop of Rome who claimed authority over all other bishops
33) Heresy - religious belief that is contrary to the official teachings of a church
34) Augustine - Bishop of Hippo in North Africa; combined Christian doctrine with Greco-Roman learning, especially the philosophy of Plato