Honors World History
Assessment 2 p. 160
1) Key Terms:
2) What factors led to the decline of the Roman republic and the rise of the Roman Empire?
A) Failure of Senate to address corruption
B) Widening gap between rich and poor
C) Civil wars
D) Power struggles among Roman leaders
3) Compare the positive had negative results of conquest for Rome. Which do you think had the most impact?
A) Positive: uniformity of law and relative peace during the Pax Romana, great wealth from conquests and trade, creation of a new class of rich Romans
B) Negative: widening gap between rich and poor led to riots, use of slave labor and imports of grain drove small farmers out of business, increased corruption
4) Do you think the reforms Caesar enacted would have been enough to maintain the Roman republic, had he not been killed?
A) No, his reforms did not address corruption, create a better civil service, or make the tax system more fair
5) How do you think the founders of the Roman republic would have viewed the government of the Roman Empire?
A) They may have been disappointed by the corruption and unlimited authority given to the leadersFocus Questions (10-21)
1) Why might the islands of Sicily and Sardinia be a good place for Rome to begin its expansion?
Both were very close to the Italian peninsula and could be reached without long supply lines
2) How was Rome’s treatment of the Carthaginians different from its treatment of conquered peoples in earlier wars?
In earlier wars, enemies were treated generously and include in the republic; in the Punic Wars, Rome sought revenge, domination, and supremacy
3) What effect did Mediterranean conquest have on the Roman social class system?
It created a new class of wealthy general, official, and traders, as well as a class of slaves from war captives
4) What values replaced simplicity, hard work, and devotion to duty in Rome?
Greed and self-interest
5) What issue led to civil wars in the Roman republic?
Who should hold power – the senate or popular political reformers
6) How were the new professional armies different from Roman legions?
Because their commanders gave them more benefits than the state did, these soldiers owed their loyalty to their commanders rather than to the state
7) Why might commanding a professional army make Caesar and other generals more willing to engage in power struggles?
They had force to back up their efforts to take power
8) Why was Caesar murdered?
His enemies feared he would make himself kings.
9) Why was Augustus careful not to declare himself dictator while acting as one?
Because dictators were limited to just six months in office
10) What event marked the end of the Roman republic and the beginning of the Roman empire?
The Senate gave Octavian the title of Augustus and allowed him to exercise absolute power.
11) What political and economic reforms helped Augustus create a stable government?
Political: created an efficient, well-trained civil service to enforce laws; allowed cities and provinces more self-government
Economic: ordered a census to find out who should be taxed, set up a postal service, issued new coins to make trade easier, put the jobless to work building roads and temples or farming the land
12) What as the long-term effect of the reforms made by Augustus?
His reforms led to a 200 –year period of stable government, peace and order within the empire, a unified empire, and economic prosperity.Vocabulary
1) Imperialism - domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region
2) Latifundia - huge estates bought up y newly wealthy Roman citizens
3) Tiberius Gracchus - wanted reform by calling for distribution of land to poor farmers; killed during a riot
4) Gaius Gracchus - wanted reform by calling for the use of public funds to buy grain for the poor; killed during a riot
5) Julius Caesar - ambitious military commander and politician who became dictator for life of Rome; assassinated by members of the Senate
6) Augustus - title given to Octavian, the nephew of Julius Caesar, who was given Rome by his uncle; he was the beginning or the Roman Empire
7) Census - population count
8) Hadrian - an example of one of the good emperors; codified Roman law, had Hadrian’s wall built across Britain to hold back attackers
9) Virgil - wrote the epic poem Aeneid, in which he tried to show that Rome’s past was as heroic as that of Greece.