Honors World History
Assessment 3, pg. 128
1. Key Terms
2. How did war with invaders and conflict among Greeks affect the city-states?
The Persian invasion united the Greeks and led to the development of the Delian League, which in turn led to Athenian prosperity. Conflict in the Delian League; however, led to the Peloponnesian War and the decline of Greece.
3. How did the Persian Wars affect the Greek city-states?
The Persian Wars united the Greek city-states, increased the power and wealth of Athens, and led to the formation of the Delian League.
4. How did Pericles contribute to Athenian greatness?
Pericles increased participation in Athenian democracy and encouraged the arts.
5. Do you think the process of ostracism is fair or unfair? Explain.
Ostracism is unfair since it thwarts people’s right to their own beliefs; or they may believe it is fair since it protests the democracy.
6. How did the growth of Athenian power lead to war?
Resentment of Athenian power encouraged Athens’s rivals to set up their own alliances, and the rivalry eventually escalated into war.
21) Who was Socrates and what did he do?
An Athenian philosopher, he questioned others about their beliefs, challenging their assumptions as a way to help them seek truth, and was condemned to death.
22) What was Plato’s ideal form of government and why wasn’t it democracy?
Socrates’ death had given Plato a distrust of democracy. Instead, he believed that a rational state would be divided into three classes with the wisest of all, a philosopher-king, having ultimate authority.
23) What is the Parthenon?
A temple to the goddess Athena and the most famous example of Greek architecture.
24) Why do you think the Greeks began to make sculptures that were lifelike?
Idealizing the human body, the Greeks chose to show the most graceful, perfect forms that were as lifelike as possible.
25) Where were Greek plays performed?
In large outdoor theatres
26) What quality of thought did Sophocles share with Socrates?
Both questioned accepted ideas
27) Who was Herodotus?
He was a Greek historian who collected information, examined bias and conflicting accounts, stressed the importance of research, and yet wrote his own views and even invented conversations for his histories.
28) Why do you think avoiding bias in history was important to both Herodotus and Thucydides?
To be accurate, history must be fair to both sides and should present events without preconception and with as little prejudice as possible
29) What factors shaped Hellenistic civilization?
Alexander and his general founded new cities settled by Greeks; local people assimilated Greek ideas; Greeks adopted local customs. This blending created a new Hellenistic culture.
30) What do you think helped make Alexandria the greatest of Hellenistic capitals?
City’s strategic location and resources, inspired leadership or cultural mix may have been factors.
1) Alliance – formal agreement between two or more nations or powers to cooperate and come to one another’s defense
2) Pericles – Athenian statesman; introduced direct democracy to Athens
3) Direct democracy – system of government in which citizens participate directly in the day-to-day affairs of government rather than through elected representatives.
4) Stipend – a fixed salary given to public office holders
5) Jury – legal group of people sworn to make a decision in a legal case
6) Ostracism – practice used in ancient Greece to banish or send away a public figure who threatened democracy
Honors World History
Section 4 Assessment, p. 135
1) Key Terms
2) How did Greek thinkers, artists, and writers explore the nature of the universe and people’s place in it?
Through the Socratic Method, the exploration of morality through familiar stories, and the application of ideals of beauty, balance, and order
3) (a) Why did Plato reject democracy? (b) Describe the ideal form of government set forth in Plato’s Republic.
(a) Plato rejected democracy because Socrates was put to death under its auspices.
(b) His ideal government was led by a philosopher-king and an elite class of specially trained philosophers
4) What standard of beauty did Greek artists follow?
To emphasize beauty, Greek artists created idealized works of balance and order
5) (a) How were Greek plays performed? (b) What were the topics of Greek poetry and plays?
a) In outdoor theatres with little or no scenery by actors who were elaborate costumes and masks
b) Familiar stories were used to explore moral and social issues or the relationship between people and the gods.
6) Why do you think research and avoiding bias is important to the writing of history?
Without research, historians would lack knowledge biased histories would be inaccurate and one-sided
1) Philosopher – someone who seeks to understand and explain life; a person who studies philosophy
2) Logic – rational thinking
3) Rhetoric – art of skillful speaking
4) Socrates – Socratic method; philosopher who challenged beliefs of the Greeks; punished for “corrupting the youth of Athens” by drinking poison
5) Plato – philosopher who wrote about the perfect world led by a philosopher-king; did not like democracy because of fate of Socrates; student of Socrates
6) Aristotle – philosopher who was the first real scientist; believed all answers could be arrived at by collecting and analyzing data
7) Tragedy – in ancient Greece, a play about human suffering often ending in disaster
8) Comedy – in ancient Greece, play that mocked people or social customs