Chapter Assessment p. 26
1) The way of life of a society is its culture.
2) Donald Johanson gave the name Lucy to an australopithecine skeleton.
3) The Paleothithic Period lasted from at least 1 million BCE to about 10,000 BCE.
4) Jericho was a tiny Neolithic village surrounded by a huge wall.
5) A highly organized social order is a civilization.
6) People who believe in many gods are polytheistic.
7) A group of states or territories controlled by one ruler is an empire.
8) In what part of the world did the earliest hominids live?
9) For what purposes did hominids create stone tools?
A) For cutting, scraping, chopping, or sawing plants, animals, and wood; digging; shattering stone or bone; and boring holes into hard surfaces
10) How did Old Stone Age people find food?
A) By hunting, fishing, or gathering
11) What change marked the beginning of the New Stone Age? In what ways did this change alter people’s way of life?
A) The New Stone Age began when people learned to farm. People no longer had to roam to find food, so they could settle permanently in one place. This led to the establishment of the first villages and later to civilizations.
12) In which four river valleys did early civilizations emerge?
A) The valley of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in the Middle East
B) The valley of the Nile River in Egypt
C) The valley of the Indus River in India
D) The valley of the Huang River in China
13) List the eight basic features of most early civilizations
B) Organized governments
C) Complex religions
D) Job specialization
E) Social classes
F) Arts and architecture
G) Public works
14) What was life like in early times, and how did it change as civilizations began to develop?
A) Before civilizations, people were nomads who roamed in search of food. As civilizations developed, people began to settle permanently in large population centers, develop specialized jobs, organized governments, and build complex cultures and cities.
15) How does this cartoon reflect the challenges that archaeologists face when interpreting the evidence that they find?
A) It shows that there is often some guess work involved.
16) Many scholars interpret evidence such as cave paintings and burials indications of early people’s beliefs. How do you think material remains help show people’s feelings and thoughts?
17) Think about the ways of life of both early nomads and early farmers. How do you think geography affected each group in both positive and negative ways?
A) Geography could have positively affected nomads by offering them food to gather, animals to hunt, and places to take shelter, or negatively affected them by not offering these things. It could have positively affected early farmers by offering them good land for farming, raising animals, and building villages or cities, or negatively affected them by not offering these things.
18) Before writing systems were invented people had to share and remember ideas, customs, and technology by word of mouth. How do you think writing eventually changed this?
A) With the ability to write, people could records their ideas, customs, and technology and thus make t hem last beyond the span of a person’s life. Writing also allowed knowledge to be spread more widely, because people could copy information and share it with many others, instead of relying on one person to share it by word of mouth.
19) Which feature(s) of civilizations do you think most allowed empires to develop?
1) D Homo floresiensis
2) B The tiny hominids were juveniles
3) D The Homo floresiensis skull pictured is older than the modern human skull pictured